Asian Mental Health (Part 3)

“The help seeking process serves as an important filter such that only a portion of those who need professional mental health treatment actually seek such assistance”

Ponterotto et al. (1995), p.416

Reasons to suspect that barriers exist

It is known that ethnic minority groups are reticent about seeking mental health assistance, and those who do suffer from premature termination. In a study of 135 African-American outpatients only 25% of those seeing a white therapist returned after the first session, as compared to 43% who were seeing a same race therapist suggesting client-therapist ethnic match to be an important factor. Interestingly, the figures suggest that 57% of the population who were seeing a same race therapist didn’t return and this would indicate that the ethnic match is far from the complete solution. Another study in a similar vein was conducted across 17 community mental health centres across the Seattle area of the USA – over 50% of Asian patients prematurely terminated therapy after just one session, as compared to a 29% rate for Caucasian patients. These observations were explained in terms of a difference in attitudes and beliefs regarding mental illness and psychotherapy, and also that the failure of therapists to consider these attitudes resulted in a failure to develop trust, rapport and a working therapeutic relationship. In a study where 83 black and 66 white university students were recruited by telephone, the white group were 6 times more likely than the black group to have sought help from a psychologist or psychiatrist.

Semi structured interviews were conducted with 48 psychiatric patients recruited from mental health care facilities. The Asian group (consisting of Filipino, Korean, Japanese and Chinese people) had the longest delay between diagnosis of mental health problems and participation in a treatment programme, indicating a degree of reluctance to engage in the help seeking process. In the interim, it was found that this group had more extended, persistent and intensive family involvement than either the Black or Caucasian groups. The authors commented that psychiatric problems in Asian families may be taken as a threat to the homeostasis of the family as a whole. The family participate actively in denying such problems.

Using a random sample of migrants from India to the UK, other researchers have found that they showed less evidence of emotional disturbance  drug rehab when compared to a matched English sample, using a scale which had been validated for both groups in question. This begs the question – do Asians utilise services less because they have less cause to do so, as opposed to there being barriers to obtain such help? Given equal numbers of stressful life events, as social support systems increase, one would expect the likelihood of experiencing psychological distress (and subsequently seeking counselling) to decrease. It is known that Asian communities in Britain tend to have strong links with the extended family, with family homes sometimes consisting of three generations. It may be that this support acts as a buffer during emotionally difficult periods. Other findings refute this suggestion – depression is thought to be diagnosed less commonly among West Indian and Asian patients in Psychiatric hospitals than among the British born, although this does not reflect the actual occurrence of depression in the community.

What are the known barriers?

There may be barriers at an institutional level – the geographic inaccessibility of mental health services to the ethnic community; lack of child care; focus on an intra-psychic model and strict adherence to time schedules. In one study, environmental constraints were ranked second as reasons for leaving therapy prematurely. Equally, there may be financial barriers (such as medical insurance within some countries, or time off work in order to attend); cultural barriers (such as language and attitudes to mental health problems). It is thought language barriers and cultural differences are less of an issue for second or third generation Chinese, who have integrated into the host country. Indeed, the English language has a rich source of adjectives to describe internal experience – such as despondent, despairing, disillusioned, gloomy, unhappy, miserable and so on – there may not be so many direct equivalents in the Asian languages. More probably, Asian clients may struggle to find English equivalents for words that they know perfectly well in their own mother tongue.

Over 2000 adults were interviewed about their perceptions of barriers to help seeking for two specific problems – alcoholism, and severe emotional problems. The Caucasian group perceived less barriers than any of the other Asian groups, and this remained so after controlling for various sociodemographic variables. A sense of shame was rated quite highly across each non-Caucasian ethnic group, and this is discussed in more detail later in the section. The second most popular response across groups was that services were inappropriate, or that they just weren’t aware of them. Interestingly the least most important factor was accessibility of services and ethnic match of the therapist. In one of few studies carried out with Indian participants, a content analysis of the responses given by Tamil women suffering with depression in India has been made. Consistent with earlier findings, treatment seeking behaviour was influenced by the stigma associated with their condition, and another deterring factor was lack of knowledge that treatment was available. The issue of shame seems further emphasised in that the women expressed feelings of wanting to ‘wither away’ rather than seek treatment.

The shame of needing to seek help

Shame has been equated with mental health problems within Asians, for sufferer and family alike – perhaps because it reflects a failing in upbringing, or some inherited component which would affect the families standing in the community. Mental illness seems to be taken by Asians as a weakness of character and the need to seek professional help is seen as a disgrace. In eastern thought there is a strong belief that all events are influenced to some degree by unseen forces, and any personal difficulty is a reflection of the misfortune of the sufferer. Isolation can set in, where people in the community tend to avoid associating with such a person, or the family. It is suggested that ancient codes of India mean psychiatrically ill individuals did not qualify for certain social privileges, and this stigma around mental illness is clearly present in contemporary India. An escape from such stigma may be to conceal the difficulties – perhaps on a conscious level in the avoidance of professional sources of help, and also in the sub-conscious denial of all problems that are not physical. For the Chinese, mental illness seems to be seen as a disgrace and sufferers become family secrets, to the extent that the illness is denied proper care.

Flat Iron Makes Your Hair Beautiful

Women who are conscious of their style and beauty and wish to look the best everywhere they go would be having a professional flat iron with them so that they can style their hair according to different occasions. If you are planning to purchase one for yourself and have not planned what kind of styling tool to look for, then you require to spent some time researching on different types, designs, features and prices of tools available today that can be worth your investment. Even though these devices can beautifully style your hair to acquire different hairstyles, you must be also aware of the hazards that the careless and improper use of such hot styling tools can come with. Today, there are different brands of professional irons available with several safety features that ensure the health and beauty of the hair after styling. You should know what type of device to look for and what are the innovative features that determine their quality and durability. After all the safety of your hair is the most important thing and therefore you can never compromise on any ordinary tool that fits your budget. While conveniently offering you the ability to style your hair, the flat iron you have chosen should also protect your hair from burns and damages.

Professional models manufactured with high end ceramic, tourmaline or titanium materials are the best recommended styling tools to be chosen. These materials are capable of protecting the hair from the heat and pressure of the tool and can also preserve the natural moisture and shine of the hair. You should carefully look for the remarkable features that professional irons come with. Look out for the variable heat setting feature that helps in allowing you to adjust the temperature of the device to suit your specific hair type. If you have thick and curly hair, you will require applying more heat on your hair in comparison to the fine and thin hair. The plate size should also change in accordance to the hair type of different people. You should always look for a lightweight device with a professional swivel cord that offer ease styling.

Curl Your Hair – Using Curling Irons and Other Tools

There are women who are blessed with naturally straight hair. But such people would also wish to try out creating beautiful curly locks occasionally. Curling irons are introduced for such people who wish to create sexy, bouncing curls easily and quickly. With a professional, high quality device, you can experiment any curling styles as you wish on your hair easily without damaging your hair. Thus, an iron for curling your hair helps you to change your looks to match any occasion everyday by yourself without the need for frequent salon visits. Modern rods for curling your hair are designed in such a way that anyone can try out any hair styles on their hair at the comfort of their hair without the help of a professional hair stylist.

Women with a passion of changing their looks always scout for the latest hair styling tools and products in the market without understanding the quality of the product. Any product, especially a thermal styling tool should only be purchased after you are fully assured about its quality as you can ruin your hair forever with a poor quality styling tool. If you wish to create beautiful curls by safeguarding your hair from the extreme heat of the device, then a professional ceramic tool would be the best choice for you.

Ceramic curling irons are designed with advanced ceramic technology that helps in protecting the hair from any kind of damage while offering beautiful, curlier and healthier hair. Ceramic materials are capable of generating plenty of negative iron and far infra red rays that help in heating the barrel evenly and stably, thereby offering not much damage to your hair. Along with the smooth and silky hair result, a ceramic model helps in eliminating damaging spots, frizz and preserves the natural moisture of your hair. As compared to ordinary ones that heat the barrel unevenly and make the hair frizzy and damaged, devices with ceramic plates offer gentle application on your hair without causing any damages.

Ceramic models are again of different types. You should consider some other features while choosing a ceramic curling iron. Make sure that the curling iron you have chosen for your hair comes with a variable heat setting features. This features helps in adjusting the apt temperature required for your hair as different hair needs different temperatures. It should also be light weight and comfortable for easy handling while curling.

2 Traits Of Successful Internet Marketers

Do you want to know the secrets of successful internet marketers? Successful internet marketers are like professional athletes. They are the “crème de la crème” of the internet marketing world. onlyfreedommatters Even though they may not seem famous and highly acclaimed as you think they should, they’re still the best of what they do. If you ever hear of someone making $2,000 per month online, and you look at them as if they are amateurs – you’re besides yourself.

Do you know how hard it is to make $2,000 per month online? Some people would sacrifice their left pinky toe to have $2,000 per month automatically coming in. That’s why the failure rate of businesses online is so high. But successful internet marketers know that there is massive work involved, and you can’t look at internet marketing as if it’s a lottery drawing.

Most people online who have been trying to make money for years believe that if they can get the best copywriter… the best product… or the best marketing consultant, that they can make $10,000 in month instantly. That’s just not true. For 98% of the people selling online, their chances of making $10,000 in one month will indeed come from the lottery. But successful internet marketers know that success online is not a “hit or miss” kind of thing.

As a successful internet marketer myself, I can tell you that true success comes from planning. You have to know your numbers, you have to be diligent and persistent with your marketing, and your paid advertising has to make sense – and also bring in high quality traffic. I want to share with you why this is important, and why successful internet marketers have all of these things in common. Take a look at this:

1) Successful internet marketers take their work seriously

Now I just mentioned above that successful people online know their numbers, are persistent, and know that their marketing makes sense. Because of this, they plan ahead with a daily marketing agenda that will help them to reach all 3 of these goals all at the same time. Let me ask you: Before you invested a dime into paid advertising, have you ever took a look at your competition and investigated the nuts and bolts of their operation?

Sometimes to be a successful internet marketer, you have to play customer. You have to buy your competitors’ product, see how good the product is, and take notice at how they market to you over and over again to get more sales from you. If you want to copy your competitors’ and have the successful business that they have, you can’t just do some of the things that they are doing… you have to do ALL of the things that they are doing.

If they have a online help desk system, you need that. If they have a phone support team, you need that. If they’re selling online as well as offline to prospects and customers, you need to do that also. Don’t think that these people just woke up one day, threw up an ad an somewhere and instantly became successful. It doesn’t work that way. Most people who try to copy their competitors have no idea what they’re doing. So plan ahead and have all of these things ready to go the next time you want to copy a rival in your niche to make money.

2) Successful internet marketers have a routine

Do you have a daily marketing routine, or do you wake up everyday browsing other peoples’ websites and reading their site? You will never get anywhere by operating like this. A lot of people do this simply because they have no idea of what to do! They’ve read countless books, courses, emails, articles and still have no clue as of what to do NEXT. What you need to do is develop an internet marketing routine that can be executed daily like clockwork.

This means that you should go and create yourself a daily marketing plan on a simply text file on your computer. And every single day when you wake up – or when you normally do your marketing – follow each step exactly daily. This is essential because you’re more likely to make money and see results of your business if you write a plan out first, and then visually follow it everyday.

So yes, the internet marketer that’s making $2,000 per month online has a daily marketing routine. If you were to take a look at the inside of their operations, you would see tons of content being produced, ads tracked and analyzed, free marketing being implemented, and a time span of when all of this is supposed to be done. You don’t want to spend 12 hours per day in front of your computer trying to do every trick in the world.

A lot people enjoy buying “bulk submitters” because they think it will simplify their marketing and bring them massive instant results. And more than likely, I’m pretty sure you’ve tried your hand at these bulk submitters also. But these bulk submitters won’t do anything for you, plus… they’re not 100% automatic! Even though they advertise that they are!

Don’t rely on products like these to do your marketing. It won’t get you anywhere and it won’t give you the results that you’re looking for. And it won’t get you the results because websites and companies are constantly cracking down on these idiotic products, and banning people from their platform who get caught using them. If you’re submitting low quality work and information everyday, how will that benefit your targeted prospect? Why should they view you as an obvious expert in your niche if you’re putting out low quality information? Does that make sense to you? It sure doesn’t to me.

If you want to be a successful internet marketer, you need to take these words to heart. Change the way that you are doing things and start implementing all of the CORRECT advice that you read. Don’t do it half-way. Do it exactly as shown online with what is said, shown, and read. This way you will know that you did each technique 100% correctly, and you did the best that you could.

Occupational Health: Core Areas of Knowledge and Competence, Part 2

OHA’s can contribute by helping managers to manage sickness absence more effectively. The nurse may be involved in helping to train line managers and supervisors in how to best use the OH service, in how to refer staff, what type of information will be required, what to expect from occupational health. By developing transparent referral procedures, ensuring that medical confidentiality is maintained and that the workers’ rights are respected the OHA can do much to ensure that employees referred for assessment due to sickness absence are comfortable with the process.

OH nurses, with their close relationship with workers, knowledge of the working environment and trends in ill-health in the company are often in a good position to advise management on preventing sickness absence. In my experience referral to General Practitioners have a limited use for work related issues, and gain best results by as well as keeping the GP aware, referring to a specialist occupational physician.

Planned rehabilitation strategies, can help to ensure safe return to work for employees who have been absent from work due to ill-health or injury. The nurse is often the key person in the rehabilitation programme who will, with the manager and individual employee, complete a risk assessment, devise the rehabilitation programme, monitor progress and communicate with the individual, the OH physician and the line manager. Nurses have also become involved in introducing proactive rehabilitation strategies that aim to detect early changes in health before such conditions result in absence from work. Improving and sustaining working ability benefits many groups, the individual, the organization and society, as costly absence and other health care costs are avoided.

In many cases the OH nurse has to work within the organization as the clients advocate in order ensuring that managers appreciate fully the value of improving the health of the workforce. OH nurses have the skills necessary to undertake this work and may develop areas of special interest.

The occupational health nurse may develop pro-active strategies to help the workforce maintain or restore their work ability. New workers, older workers, women returning to work following pregnancy or workers who have been unemployed for a prolonged period of time may all benefit from health advice or a planned programme of work hardening exercises to help maintain or restore their work ability even before any health problems arise. Increasingly the problems faced by industry are of a psychosocial nature and these can be even more complex and costly to deal with. OH nurses, working at the company level, are in a good position to give advice to management on strategies that can be adopted to improve the psycho-social health and wellbeing of workers.

Health and safety

The OHA can have a role to play in developing health and safety strategies. Where large, or high risk, organizations have their own in-house health and safety specialists the OHA can work closely with these specialists to ensure that the nurses expertise in health, risk assessment, health surveillance and environmental health management is fully utilized into the health and safety strategy. Occupational health nurses are trained in health and safety legislation, risk management and the control of workplace health hazards and can therefore make a useful contribution to the overall management of health and safety at work, with particular emphasis on ‘health’ risk assessment.

Hazard identification

The nurse often has close contact with the workers and is aware of changes to the working environment. Because of the nurses expertise in the effects of work on health they are in a good position to be involved in hazard identification. Hazards may arise due to new processes or working practices or may arise out of informal changes to existing processes and working practices that the nurse can readily identify and assess the likely risk from. This activity requires and pre-supposed regular and frequent work place visits by the occupational health nurse to maintain an up to date knowledge and awareness of working processes and practices.

Risk assessment

Legislation in Europe is increasingly being driven by a risk management approach. OHA’s are trained in risk assessment and risk management strategies and, depending upon their level of expertise and the level of complexity involved in the risk assessment, the nurse can undertake risk assessments or contribute towards the risk assessment working closely with other specialists.

Advice on control strategies

Having been involved in the hazard identification and risk assessment the occupational health nurse can, within the limits of their education and training, provide advice and information on appropriate control strategies, including health surveillance, risk communication, monitoring and on the evaluation of control strategies.

Research and the use of evidence based practice

Specialist OHA’s utilize research findings from a wide range of disciplines, including nursing, toxicology, psychology, environmental health and public health in their daily practice. The principal requirement for an occupational health nurse in practice is that they have the skills to read and critically assess research findings from these different disciplines and to be able to incorporate the findings into evidence based approach to their practice. Research in nursing is already well established and there is a small, but growing, body of evidence being created by occupational health nursing researchers who investigate occupational health nursing practices. OHA’s should ensure that they have access to and the skills necessary to base their practice on the best available evidence. At the company level occupational health nurses may be involved in producing management reports on for example sickness absence trends, accident statistics, assessment of health promotion needs and in evaluating the delivery of services, the effectiveness of occupational health interventions. Research skills and the ability to transfer knowledge and information from published research to practice is an important aspect of the role.


OHA’s, along with other health, environment and safety professionals in the workplace health team, are in a privileged position in society. They have access to personal and medical information relating to employees in the company that would not be available to any other group. Society has imposed, by law, additional responsibilities on clinical professionals to protect and safeguard the interest of patients. The ethical standards for each discipline are set and enforced by each of the professional bodies. Breaches of these codes of conduct can result in the professional being removed from the register and prevented for practicing. Nurses have a long and well-respected tradition in society of upholding the trust placed in them by patients. This level of trust in the occupational health nurse’s professional integrity means that employees feel that they can be open, honest and share information with the nurse in the confidence that the information will not be used for other purposes. This allows the nurse to practice much more effectively than would ever be possible if that trust was not there. The protection of personal information enables a trusted relationship between employees and the nurse to be developed and facilitates optimum working relationships and partnership. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) has published useful guidance on ethics for occupational health professionals’. This guidance is summarized below “Occupational Health Practice must be performed according to the highest professional standards and ethical principles. Occupational health professionals must serve the health and social wellbeing of the workers, individually and collectively. They also contribute to environmental and community health the obligations of occupational health professionals include protecting the life and the health of the worker, respecting human dignity and promoting the highest ethical principles in occupational health policies and programs. Integrity in professional conduct, impartiality and the protection of confidentiality of health data and the privacy of workers are part of these obligations. Occupational health professionals are experts who must enjoy full professional independence in the execution of their functions. They must acquire and maintain the competence necessary for their duties and require conditions which allow them to carry out their tasks according to good practice and professional ethics.”

Experience Love With Movies

“If you love someone you say it,…
you say it right then, out loud,…
or the moment just… passes you by..”
My Best Friend’s Wedding

A movie has always been an all-time favourite way to spend the Valentines Day, unless it is two separate movies, for the two celebrating this very special day! This 14th February, one can very easily fire up their love-life,or that very special day, by a high profile contemporary film with that of a classic one. Just see how bazinga a movie can say about one’s love life..

Doomed Love:

Sometimes the most enchanting love is the one that can never be. Whether it’s the yearning look in Francesca Johnson’s eyes as Robert Kincaid drives away in the rain at the end of The Bridges of Madison County (1995). Or the self-sacrificing nobility with which an Englishman masquerading as a prince says goodbye to the princess he’s come to be in love with in The Prisoner of Zenda (1937 or 1952).

One can even try pairing Titanic (1997) with Roman Holiday (1953). One on this very day, can let the black-and-white beauty of Gregory Peck, Audrey Hepburn, and those breathtaking Rome vistas set the mood, and sail on to Leonardo DiCaprio, Kate Winslet and James Cameron’s stunning evocation of the ship that even God couldn’t sink.


It is said that, the Forbidden fruit always tastes the sweetest, especially in movies. For a fun and thought-provoking double feature, start with last year’s surprise-hit, Kissing Jessica Stein, in which two women (stars/co-writers Heather Juergensen and Jennifer Westfeldt) hesitantly experiment with a lesbian relationship. It’s funny, fast-paced and surprisingly sweet, and not at all prurient.

One can even follow Kissing with Love — Love Field (1992), with Michelle Pfeiffer as a repressed wife in 1963 Texas who, on a cross-country trip to attend John F. Kennedy’s funeral, tries to puzzle out her attraction to a black man (Dennis Haysbert) who gives her a lift along the way..


Sometimes the best love stories are about people who write stories. It’s hard to go wrong with Shakespeare in Love (1998), in which the Bard of Avon (Joseph Fiennes) tries to figure out the plot of his new play Romeo and Ethel the Pirate’s Daughter while dallying with a lovely, young and completely stage-struck aristocrat’s daughter (Gwyneth Paltrow).

A more recent but oddly less modern writer, C.S. Lewis, is the unlikely hero of Shadowlands (1993). Bookish and withdrawn, Lewis (Anthony Hopkins) comes alive, when brassy American poet Joy Gresham (Debra Winger) bulls her way into his life.


Love is magical, of course, but sometimes magic is love, too. Remember Tom Hanks and a mermaid in Splash (1984) or Christopher Reeve following Jane Seymour into the past in Somewhere in Time (1980)?

Perhaps the best-ever romantic fantasy is Ghost (1990), with a spectral Patrick Swayze clinging to existence out of love for Demi Moore. Both leads are at their best, and Whoopi Goldberg won an Oscar for her hilarious turn as a bogus psychic who starts seeing real dead people.

For a double feature, one also try Steven Spielberg’s underrated Always (1989), with Richard Dreyfuss and Holly Hunter as a couple so perfect that one knows they can’t last. It’s Spielberg’s most romantic work by a long shot, and Audrey Hepburn, in her last film, has a charming cameo.


There’d be no musicals without love songs — think of Gene Kelly dancing outside Debbie Reynolds’ window as the skies open in Singin’ in the Rain (1952) or Judy Garland singing “The Man That Got Away” in A Star Is Born (1954).

Start with the peerless Top Hat (1935), clever enough to be counted among the classic screwball comedies if it weren’t for the distraction of the dazzling Fred Astaire/Ginger Rogers dances and Irving Berlin’s wonderful score.

Songs by everybody from Jule Styne to Lennon/McCartney and Madonna are heard in Moulin Rouge (2002), and director Baz Luhrmann makes it all work beautifully. Nicole Kidman is a knockout, Ewan McGregor proves to be a wonderful singer and Jim Broadbent bellows ”Like a Virgin” as if it were the most natural thing in the world.


Does it matter if on-screen lovers connect off-screen as well? Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman never really clicked on the big screen, after all, and Alec Baldwin and Kim Basinger never set the world on fire.

But for a life-imitates-art double feature, one can try Adam’s Rib (1949) and To Have and Have Not (1944). In the former, longtime companions Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn do their patented comedy/drama blend, with a nice turn from Judy Holliday as the aggrieved wife whose case pits defense attorney Hepburn against prosecutor Tracy. In the latter Humphrey Bogart meets Lauren Bacall, and even after 60 years you can still see the sparks. It’s not much like the Hemingway novel, but it’s a classic.


The most iconic love story of them all, Romeo and Juliet, is the definitive teen romance.

10 Things I Hate About You (1999), however, draws on a different Shakespearian source. This clever reworking of The Taming of the Shrew features career-making performances from Julia Stiles and Heath Ledger in the lead roles, but the supporting cast — especially Alison Janney, Larry Miller and Larisa Oleynik — is equally good.

The little-known Dogfight (1991) makes a soberer matchup, with River Phoenix at a career peak as a young soldier who meets a gawky folk-music fan (Lili Taylor) in Vietnam-era San Francisco. He comes to mock her but stays to know her, and ultimately it’s one of the most achingly believable films ever made.


Some say that young love is the only love? But one can easily come out of this thought, if one checks out Laurence Olivier and Katharine Hepburn in Love Among the Ruins (1975) — the age gap between the two, is a bit too much, but they still make this tale of an aging actress and the barrister.

One can also add How Stella Got Her Groove Back (1998), in which a 40-something executive (Angela Bassett) and a 20-something Caribbean stud (Taye Diggs) prove once and for all that age is only a number.


In Today’s Economy is Affiliate Marketing Dead?

With more competition in affiliate marketing, people are asking is affiliate marketing dead? The short answer is no and there are people that are still making very good money at it, but they are applying themselves to doing so.

Competition does make it harder to make this  robottogel kind of money and affiliate marketing, but effective campaigns can help you. By understanding that you need to compete, it will help you realize the money that you want to make. It can also help you figure out the best way to market your website, and the more innovative you are, the more likely you can be a success.

Today, affiliates have more tools their disposal to be able to make money. PPC, or pay per click advertising allows you to pay for advertisements on websites or search engines when your link is clicked and can help boost your visibility. Article marketing can drive readerships to your business and make you appear to be an expert which can help you sell better.

You do need to understand that this is a business and it can take some time to become very successful, but there are people that are making a lot of money every day and becoming the next excess story.

Set a goal that you want to achieve. Start small and work up to that goal and you can become the next excess story.

You will make mistakes doing this, and you need to learn from these mistakes and alter your business plan so that you are not repeating the mistakes. This way you can think outside the box in use what hasn’t worked in a way that will work.

Is Affiliate Marketing Dead? Only for those that are not willing to work at it. It is still a viable way to become successful and make the money that you want.


2020: A New World-Order

Till last year, we all were enjoying lives on our beautiful planet earth in spite of all negative forces. Technological advances have made life very simple for everyone and distances were not felt in this global village.

We all were self centered. Trying to fulfil our dreams & desires rapidly. And if you have money or power than everything was available on a call or click of button. You could have breakfast in one continent, lunch in other and come back home expression for dinner. You could deliver a business talk on your favorite subject and get honored by the community organizing the event.

But the poor and deprived were not lagging behind. They could get a selfie photoshoped in their favorite destination/ background and post it on social media to earn large number of likes. On the social media platforms, they could deliver or forward tons of text, photo or video.

Everybody was busy in several activities yet not satisfied fully by any of those. Available money was not enough for any one and survival was on borrowed money. The only concern was to somehow manage to pay the next instalment. The 24 hours’ time in a day was not enough to meet the set targets and it was a mad race everywhere. The popular destinations were overcrowded and everyone wanted to reach there somehow.

But in 2020, the dynamics of the world gone to a sudden change. A ‘nano meter sized’ virus, which was not even the living entity like bacteria, forced all the world powers to fight a war against it.

Suddenly, the basic needs were in foreground and everyone realized that (s)he can live without the cosmetic needs for a considerable time.

All calculation of the traffic-based business became irrelevant and big business models collapsed like a pack of cards.

The only way to defeat the contagious virus was to reduce the movements to minimum and keep a safe distance from other people.

This change is irreversible. We will have to learn to live with this virus. A new world order has already emerged. ‘self-reliance’ is the mantra to live life, that too a simple one. Each one of us will have to consider an aura of one meter around the body of self and others and treat it as physical entity. Those who will ignore this will pay the price. Office cum residential complexes with self-sustaining working model mostly with local resources are the reality of future. Very powerful local civic governing bodies communicating through internet will emerge and the scope of nation or state government will be just to coordinate the efforts and resources.

The greatest artist

Ask twenty people who the greatest artist that ever lived was, and you’re likely to get at least twelve different answers. Everyone has different tastes in art, just like they do in everything else. More likely than not, you’ll hear names like Michelangelo, da Vinci, and van Gogh dropped, because these are the artists that they know of. The real question here though, is what makes them a great artist? Ask them this, and you may never get a real answer.

The title ‘great artist’ can be given to anyone in the world who has ever created anything, even yourself, but there are certain things that the great masters have come to be known for, creating a legend for themselves. Most times, these people earned their reputation by evolving art somehow. Whether it was the use of light and dark, perspective, portraiture, or a multitude of other things, these people have mastered it, created it, or became known for it.

None of this was ever really acknowledged while they were actually alive. Few artists became famous, or even remotely well-known until after their deaths. People were generally too preoccupied with other things to have the time to appreciate a good work of art. The ones that were able to take the time were usually the extremely wealthy ones that commissioned the pieces, or sponsored the artist.

The term ‘starving artist’ originated centuries ago, when artists could rarely support themselves, let alone their craft. Those just starting out in the business would often apprentice to a more experienced artist, who would show them how to create what people wanted, as well as introducing them to prospective clients. These masters were generally sponsored by wealthy patrons who would pay to feed and clothe them, as well as providing them a place to live. In return, they would often be at their disposal to create portraits and paintings of whatever their hearts desired.

This was usually a pretty decent life for an artist. As long as they had a sponsor, they would be a contributing member of society. Without one, it could be nearly impossible to gain a name for themselves, while still managing to eat occasionally and find supplies.

Leaping Into the 6th Technology Revolution

Yet many are oblivious to the signs and are in danger of watching this become a period of noisy turmoil rather than the full-blown insurrection needed to launch us into a green economy. What we require is not a new spinning wheel, but fabrics woven with nanofibers that generate solar power. To make that happen, we need a radically reformulated way of understanding markets, technology, financing, and the role of government in accelerating change. But will we understand the opportunities before they disappear?

Seeing the Sixth Revolution for What It Is

We are seven years into the beginning of what analysts at BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research call the Sixth Revolution. A table by Carlotta Perez, which was presented during a recent BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research luncheon hosted by Robert Preston and Steven Milunovich, outlines the revolutions that are unexpected in their own time that lead to the one in which we find ourselves.


  • 1771: Mechanization and improved water wheels
  • 1829: Development of steam for industry and railways
  • 1875: Cheap steel, availability of electricity, and the use of city gas
  • 1908: Inexpensive oil, mass-produced internal combustion engine vehicles, and universal electricity
  • 1971: Expansion of information and tele-communications
  • 2003: Cleantech and biotech


The Vantage of Hindsight

Looking back at 1971, we know that Intel’s introduction of the microprocessor marked the beginning of a new era. But in that year, this meant little to people watching Mary Tyler Moore and The Partridge Family, or listening to Tony Orlando & Dawn and Janis Joplin. People would remember humanity’s first steps on the Moon, opening relations between US and China, perhaps the successful completion of the Human Genome Project to 99.99% accuracy, and possibly the birth of Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists.


According to Ben Weinberg, Partner, Element Partners, “Every day, we see American companies with promising technologies that are unable to deploy their products because of a lack of debt financing. By filling this gap, the government will ignite the mass deployment of innovative technologies, allowing technologies ranging from industrial waste heat to pole-mounted solar PV to prove their economics and gain credibility in the debt markets.” 


Flying beneath our collective radar was the first floppy disk drive by IBM, the world’s first e-mail sent by Ray Tomlinson, the launch of the first laser printer by Xerox PARC and the Cream Soda Computer by Bill Fernandez and Steve Wozniak (who would found the Apple Computer company with Steve Jobs a few years later). 

Times have not changed that much. It’s 2011 and many of us face a similar disconnect with the events occurring around us. We are at the equivalent of 1986, a year on the cusp of the personal computer and the Internet fundamentally changing our world. 1986 was also the year that marked the beginning of a major financial shift into new markets. Venture Capital (VC) experienced its most substantial finance-raising season, with approximately $750 million, and the NASDAQ was established to help create a market for these companies.

Leading this charge was Kleiner Perkins Caulfield & Beyers (KPCB), a firm that turned technical expertise into possibly the most successful IT venture capital firm in Silicon Valley. The IT model looked for a percentage of big successes to offset losses: an investment like the $8 million in Cerent, which was sold to Cisco Systems for $6.9 billion, could make up for a lot of great ideas that didn’t quite make it.

Changing Financial Models

But the VC model that worked so well for information and telecommunications doesn’t work in the new revolution. Not only is the financing scale of the cleantech revolution orders of magnitude larger than the last, this early in the game even analysts are struggling to see the future.

Steven Milunovich, who hosted the BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research lunch, remarked that each revolution has an innovation phase which may last for as long as 25 years, followed by an implementation phase of another 25. Most money is made in the first 20 years, so real players want to get in early. But the question is: Get in where, for how much and with whom?

There is still market scepticism and uncertainty about the staying power of the clean energy revolution. Milunovich estimates that many institutional investors don’t believe in global warming, and adopt a “wait and see” attitude complicated by government impasse on energy security legislation. For those who are looking at these markets, their motivation ranges from concerns about oil scarcity, supremacy in the “new Sputnik” race, the shoring up of homeland security and – for some – a concern about the effects of climate change. Many look askance at those who see that we are in the midst of a fundamental change in how we produce and use energy. Milunovich, for all these reasons, is “cautious in the short term, bullish on the long.”

The Valley of Death

Every new technology brings with it needs for new financing. In the sixth revolution, with budget needs 10 times those of IT, the challenge is moving from idea to prototype to commercialization. The Valley of Death, as a recent Bloomberg New Energy Finance whitepaper, Crossing the Valley of Death pointed out, is the gap between technology creation and commercial maturity.

But some investors and policy makers continue to hope that private capital will fuel this gap, much as it did the last. They express concern over the debt from government programs like the stimulus funds (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) which have invested millions in new technologies in the clean energy sector, as well as helping states with rebuilding infrastructure and other projects. They question why the traditional financing models, which made the United States the world leader in information technology and telecommunications, can’t be made to work today, if the Government would just get out of the way.

But analysts from many sides of financing believe that government support, of some kind, is essential to move projects forward, because cleantech and biotech projects require a much larger input of capital in order to get to commercialization. This gap not only affects commercialization, but is also affecting investments in new technologies, because financial interests are concerned that their investment might not see fruition – get to commercial scale.

How new technologies are radically different from the computer revolution.

Infrastructure complexity

This revolution is highly dependent on an existing – but aging – energy infrastructure. Almost 40 years after the start of the telecommunications revolution, we are still struggling with a communications infrastructure that is fragmented, redundant, and inefficient. Integrating new sources of energy, and making better use of what we have, is an even more complex – and more vital – task.

According to “Crossing the Valley of Death,” the Bloomberg New Energy Finance Whitepaper,


“The events of the past few years confirm that it is only with the public sector’s help that the Commercialization Valley of Death can be addressed, both in the short and the long term. Only public institutions have ‘public benefits’ obligations and the associated mandated risk-tolerance for such classes of investments, along with the capital available to make a difference at scale. Project financiers have shown they are willing to pick up the ball and finance the third, 23rd, and 300th project that uses that new technology. It is the initial technology risk that credit committees and investment managers will not tolerate.” 


Everything runs on fuel and energy, from our homes to our cars to our industries, schools, and hospitals. Most of us have experienced the disconnect we feel when caught in a blackout: “The air-conditioner won’t work so I guess I’ll turn on a fan,” only to realize we can’t do either. Because energy is so vital to every aspect of our economy, federal, state and local entities regulate almost every aspect of how energy is developed, deployed, and monetized. Wind farm developers face a patchwork quilt of municipal, county, state and federal regulations in getting projects to scale. 

Incentives from government sources, as well as utilities, pose both an opportunity and a threat: the market rises and falls in direct proportion to funding and incentives. Navigating these challenges takes time and legal expertise: neither of which are in abundant supply to entrepreneurs.

Development costs

Though microchips are creating ever-smaller electronics, cleantech components – such as wind turbines and photovoltaics – are huge. They can’t be developed in a garage, like Hewlett and Packard’s first oscilloscope. A new generation of biofuels that utilizes nanotechnology isn’t likely to take place out of a dorm room, as did Michael Dell’s initial business selling customized computers. What this means for sixth revolution projects is that they have much larger funding needs, at much earlier stages.

Stepping up and supporting innovation, universities – and increasingly corporations – are partnering with early stage entrepreneurs. They are providing technology resources, such as laboratories and technical support, as well as management expertise in marketing, product development, government processes, and financing. Universities get funds from technology transfer arrangements, while corporations invest in a new technologies, expanding their product base, opening new businesses, or providing cost-benefit and risk-analysis of various approaches.

But even with such help, venture capital and other private investors are needed to augment costs that cannot be born alone. These investors look to some assurance that projects will produce revenue in order to return the original investment. So concerns over the Valley of Death affects even early stage funding.

Time line to completion

So many of us balk at two year contracts for our cell phones that there is talk of making such requirements illegal. But energy projects, by their size and complexity, look out over years, if not decades. Commercial and industrial customers look to spread their costs over ten to twenty years, and contracts cover contingencies like future business failure, the sale of properties, or the prospect of renovations that may affect the long term viability of the original project.

Kevin Walsh, managing director and head of Power and Renewable Energy at GE Energy Financial Services states, “GE Energy Financial Services supports the creation of CEDA or a similar institution because it would expand the availability of low-cost capital to the projects and companies in which we invest, and it would help expand the market for technology supplied by other GE businesses.”

Michael Holman, analyst for Lux Research, noted that a $25 million investment in Google morphed into $1.7 billion 5 years later. In contrast, a leading energy storage company started with a $300 million investment, and 9 years later valuation remains uncertain. These are the kinds of barriers that can stall the drive we need for 21st century technologies.

Looking to help bridge the gap in new cleantech and biotech projects, is a proposed government-based solution called the Clean Energy Deployment Administration (CEDA). There is a house and senate version, as well as a house Green Bank bill to provide gap financing. Recently, over 42 companies, representing many industries and organizations, signed a letter to President Obama, supporting the Senate version, the “21st Century Energy Technology Deployment Act.”

Both the house and senate bills propose to create, as an office within the US Department of Energy (DOE), an administration which would be tasked with lending to risky cleantech projects for the purpose of bringing new technologies to market. CEDA would be the bridge needed to ensure the successful establishment of the green economy, by partnering with private investment to bring the funding needed to get these technologies to scale. Both versions capitalize the agency with $10 Billion (Senate) and $7.5 Billion (House), with an expected 10% loss reserve long term.

By helping a new technology move more effectively through the pipeline from idea to deployment, CEDA can substantially increase private sector investment in energy technology development and deployment. It can create a more successful US clean energy industry, with all the attendant economic and job creation benefits.

Who Benefits?

CEDA funding could be seen as beneficial for even the most unlikely corporations. Ted Horan is the Marketing and Business Development Manager for Hycrete, a company that sells a waterproof concrete. Hardly a company that springs to mind when we think about clean technologies, he recently commented on why Hycrete CEO, Richard Guinn, is a signatory on the letter to Obama:


“The allocation of funding for emerging clean energy technologies through CEDA is an important step in solving our energy and climate challenges. Companies on the cusp of large-scale commercial deployment will benefit greatly and help accelerate the adoption of clean energy practices throughout our economy.” 


In his opinion, the manufacturing and construction that is needed to push us out of a stagnating economy will be supported by innovation coming from the cleantech and biotech sectors. 

Google’s Dan Reicher, Director of Climate Change and Energy Initiatives, has been a supporter from the inception of CEDA. He has testified before both houses of Congress, and was a signatory on the letter to President Obama. Google’s interest in clean and renewable energies dates back several years. The company is actively involved in projects to cut costs of solar thermal and expand the use of plug-in vehicles, and has developed the Power Meter, a product which brings home energy management to anyone’s desktop-for free.

Financial support includes corporations like GE Energy Financial Services, Silicon Valley Venture Capital such as Kleiner, Perkins Caulfiled and Byers, and Mohr Davidow Ventures, and Energy Capital including Hudson Clean Energy and Element Partners.Can something like the senate version of CEDA leap the Valley of Death?

As Will Coleman from Mohr Davidow Ventures, said, “The Devil’s in the details.” The Senate version has two significant changes from previous proposals: an emphasis on breakthrough as opposed to conventional technologies, and political independence.

Neil Auerbach, Managing Partner, Hudson Clean Energy

The clean energy sector can be a dynamic growth engine for the US economy, but not without thoughtful government support for private capital formation. **[Government policy] promises to serve as a valuable bridging tool to accelerate private capital formation around companies facing the challenge, and can help ensure that the US remains at the forefront of the race for dominance in new energy technologies.

Breakthrough Technologies

Coleman said that “breakthrough” includes the first or second deployment of a new approach, not just the game changing science-fiction solution that finally brings us limitless energy at no cost. The Bloomberg New Energy white paper uses the term “First of Class.” Bringing solar efficiency up from 10% to 20%, or bringing manufacturing costs down by 50%, would be a breakthrough that would help us begin to compete with threats from China and India. Conventional technologies, those that are competing with existing commercialized projects, would get less emphasis.

Political Independence

Political independence is top of mind for many who spoke or provided an analysis of the bill. Michael Holman, analyst at Lux Research, expressed the strongest concerns that CEDA doesn’t focus enough on incentives to bring together innovative start-ups with larger established firms.


“The government itself taking on the responsibility of deciding what technologies to back isn’t likely to work-it’s an approach with a dreadful track record. That said, it is important for the federal government to lead – the current financing model for bringing new energy technologies to market is broken, and new approaches are badly needed.” 


For many, the senate bill has many advantages over the house bill, in providing for a decision making process that includes technologists and private sector experts. 


“I think both sides [of the aisle] understand this is an important program, and must enable the government to be flexible and employ a number of different approaches. The Senate version empowers CEDA to take a portfolio approach and manage risk over time, which I think is good. In the House bill, CEDA has to undergo the annual appropriation process, which runs the risk of politicizing every investment decision in isolation and before we have a chance to see the portfolio mature.” – Will Coleman, Mohr Davidow. 


Michael DeRosa, Managing Director of Element Partners added, 


“The framework must ensure the selection of practical technologies, optimization of risk/return for taxpayer dollars, and appropriate oversight for project selection and spending. **Above all, these policies must be designed with free markets principles in mind and not be subject to political process.” 


If history is any indication, rarely are those in the middle of game-changing events aware of their role in what will one day be well-known for their sweeping influence. But what we can see clearly now is the gap between idea and commercial maturity. CEDA certainly offers some hope that we may yet see the cleantech age grow up into adulthood. But will we act quickly enough before all of the momentum and hard work that has brought us this far falls flat as other countries take leadership roles, leaving us in the dust? 

THE GREEN ECONOMY is an information company, providing timely, credible facts and analyses on companies adapting to meet the challenges of a green future.

Markets are in transition; customers are demanding a higher quality of life, such as clean water and energy. These pressures are affecting commodity prices, access to markets, the nature of innovation and more. At the same time, infrastructure (water, energy, transportation), is becoming more – not less – localized. These changes mean opportunities and demand new partnerships to deliver increasingly complex solutions. THE GREEN ECONOMY tells those stories.